Bilginin yapısını inceleyen, doğru ile yanlış arasındaki akıl yürütmenin ayrımını yapan disiplindir.
The general science of inference. Deductive logic, in which a conclusion follows from a set of premises, is distinguished from inductive logic, which studies the way in which premises may support a conclusion without entailing it. In deductive logic the conclusion cannot be false if the premises are true. The aim of a logic is to make explicit the rules by which inferences may be drawn, rather than to study the actual reasoning processes that people use, which may or may not conform to those rules. In the case of deductive logic, if we ask why we need to obey the rules, the most general form of answer is that if we do not we contradict ourselves (or, strictly speaking, we stand ready to contradict ourselves. Someone failing to draw a conclusion that follows from a set of premises need not be contradicting him or herself, but only failing to notice something. However, he or she is not defended against adding the contradictory conclusion to his or her set of beliefs). There is no equally simple answer in the case of inductive logic, which is in general a less robust subject, but the aim will be to find reasoning such that anyone failing to conform to it will have improbable beliefs. Aristotle is generally recognized as the first great logician, and Aristotelian logic or traditional logic (see syllogism) dominated the subject until the 19th century. It became increasingly recognized in the 20th century that fine work was done within that tradition, but syllogistic reasoning is now generally regarded as a limited special case of the forms of reasoning that can be represented within the propositional and predicate calculus. These form the heart of modern logic. Their central notions, of *quantifiers, *variables, and *functions were the creation of the German mathematician Frege, who is recognized as the father of modern logic, although his treatment of a logical system as an abstract mathematical structure, or algebra, had been heralded by Boole (see Boolean algebra). Modern logic is thus called mathematical logic for two reasons: first, the logic itself is an object of mathematical study, but secondly, the forms introduced by Frege provided a language capable of representing all mathematical reasoning. This was something traditional logic had been quite incapable of tackling. The propositional and predicate calculus study ways of combining propositions with the connectives expressing truth functions, and of combining information about the quantity of times predicates are satisfied. These highly general operations can occur in any discourse, from mathematics to discussion of the football results. More specific logics study particular topics such as time, possibility, and obligation. Thus there exist deontic logics, modal logics, logics of tense, and so on. For other notions associated with the study of logic see interpretation, logical calculus, logical constants, logical form, model theory, proof theory, quantifier, truth function, variable.
Blackburn, Simon. The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy
Logic, lojik, Aristo
İlgili Diğer Konular
Pluralism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) A term used in philosophy, meaning "doctrine of multiplicity", often used in opposition to monism ("doctrine of unity") and dualism ("doctrine of duality").
Political philosophy (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) The study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
Logicism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Logicism is one of the schools of thought in the philosophy of mathematics, putting forth the theory that mathematics is an extension of logic and therefore some or all mathematics is reducible to logic.
Stoicism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) It is a discipline of philosophy founded by Zenon of Cyprus. Logic, Metaphysics, Ethics.
Proposition (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) In the traditional notation for categorical logic, a proposition that is both universal in quantity and affirmative in quality.
Aristo - Atinalıların Devleti (Articles) Aristonun devlet yönetimleri üzerine yazdığı kitaplar serisinin en önemlisi bu kitaptır.
Diyalektik (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Kavramlar arasındaki karşıtlık ilişkisinden yola çıkarak bunu doğruya varan süreçlerin açığa çıkarılmasında bir ilke olarak kullanan düşünme ve araştırma yolu.
Aion (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) İlkçağ Yunan felsefesinde özellikle Parmenides’ten itibaren ebediyet ya da bengilik anlamında kullanılan terim.
Peripatetics (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Aristoteles'in yandaş ve öğrencileri.
Determinism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) The philosophical position that for every event there exist conditions that could cause no other event.
Socratic Era (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) (5th - 4th Century B.C.)
Scholasticism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Orta Çağ düşüncesinde doğrunun zaten mevcut olduğu düşüncesine ve felsefenin okullarda okutularak öğretilmesine dayanan bir yaklaşım sergiler. Bu felsefenin temelinde teoloji vardır ve onu desteklemeye çalışır.
Averroism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 13. yüzyılda latin hristiyan skolastisizmini etkileyen, İbn Rüşd çevirilerinin etrafında şekillenerek etkisini gösteren Aristotelesçi felsefi akım, görüş.
Ontology (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Ontology as a dogmatic science of beings is destroyed by the whole work of Kant; Against the psychology, cosmology and theology, as far as they claim to be dogmatic, the transcendental dialectic is directed.
Historical Ethics of Moral Philosophy (Articles) Which actions and behaviors are right or wrong? What are the criteria for being moral or immoral? Some well-known philosophers from ancient Antiquity have responded to these questions on a daily basis.
Hegel (Biyografi) The German philosopher Hegel believed that strange and alien bits of history have much to teach us. He believed story and civilisation do not move in a straight line, so important ideas and attitudes get left behind.
Aristotelianism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) A tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.
Mimesis (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) A critical and philosophical term that carries a wide range of meanings, which include imitation, representation, mimicry, imitatio, receptivity, nonsensuous similarity, the act of resembling, the act of expression, and the presentation of the self.
Schiller, Ferdinand (Philosophers) Schiller's philosophy was very similar to and often aligned with the pragmatism of William James, although Schiller referred to it as "humanism".
Al-Farabi (Philosophers) In Arabic philosophical tradition, he is known with the honorific "the Second Master", after Aristotle.
Leibniz (Philosophers) A German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy, having developed differential and integral calculus independently of Isaac Newton.
İbni Rüşd (Philosophers) Batıya Aristo’yu tanıtan ve felsefenin yayılmasında öncülük eden önemli bir İslam filozofudur.
Avempace (Philosophers) A medieval Andalusian: his writings include works regarding astronomy, physics, and music, as well as philosophy, medicine, botany, and poetry.
Aristotle (Philosophers) Antik Yunan filozof.
Platon / Eflatun (Philosophers) Görüşleri Islam ve Hristiyan felsefesine derin etkide bulunmuş önemli bir Antik Yunan filozofudur.
Sokrates (Philosophers) Yunan Felsefesinin kurucularındandır
Montesquieu (Philosophers) A French lawyer, man of letters, and political philosopher who lived during the Age of Enlightenment.
Spinoza (Philosophers) 17. yüzyıl felsefesinin önde gelen rasyonalistlerinden biri olarak kabul edilmektedir.
Epikür (Philosophers) It is one of the most important thinkers of Hellenistic philosophy.
Ibn-i Sina (Philosophers) Fars filozof ve hekim.
Machiavelli (Philosophers) Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (1469 - 1527). Florentine philosopher, statesman, military strategist, poet, play writer, founder of history and politics.
Hegel (Philosophers) Diyalektik mantık ekolünün kurucusu Alman filozof.
Francis Bacon (Philosophers) Ingiliz devlet adamı ve filozof.
Locke, John (Philosophers) Aydınlanma düşünürlerinden en çok etkilenen ve yaygın olarak "Liberalizmin Babası" olarak bilinen İngiliz felsefeci ve doktoru.
Heidegger, Martin (Philosophers) A German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics.
Logic (Aphorisms) Düşüncenin ve düşüncenin varlık biçimlerinin, ögelerinin, türlerinin, olanaklarının, yasalarının ve düşünce bağlamlarının bilimi.