Scholasticism

Scholasticism

Orta Çağ düşüncesinde doğrunun zaten mevcut olduğu düşüncesine ve felsefenin okullarda okutularak öğretilmesine dayanan bir yaklaşım sergiler. Bu felsefenin temelinde teoloji vardır ve onu desteklemeye çalışır.


Scholasticism is a Medieval school of philosophy (or, perhaps more accurately, a method of learning) taught by the academics of medieval universities and cathedrals in the period from the 12th to 16th Century. It combined Logic, Metaphysics and semantics into one discipline, and is generally recognised to have developed our understanding of Logic significantly.

The term "scholastic" is derived from the Latin word "scholasticus" and the Greek "scholastikos" (meaning literally "devoting one's leisure to learning" or "scholar") and the Greek "scholeion" (meaning "school"). The term "schoolmen" is also commonly used to describe scholastics.

Scholasticism is best known for its application in medieval Christian theology, especially in attempts to reconcile the philosophy of the ancient classical philosophers (particularly Aristotle) with Christian theology. However, in the High Scholastic period of the 14th Century, it moved beyond theology, and had applications in many other fields of study including Epistemology, Philosophy of Science, philosophy of nature, psychology and even economic theory.

Essentially, Scholasticism is a tool and method for learning which places emphasis on dialectical reasoning (the exchange of argument, or thesis, and counter argument, or antithesis, in pursuit of a conclusion, or synthesis), directed at answering questions or resolving contradictions. In medieval Europe, dialectics (or logic) was one of the three original liberal arts (the "trivium"), in addition to rhetoric and grammar.

There are perhaps six main characteristics of Scholasticism:

An acceptance of the prevailing Catholic orthodoxy.

Within this orthodoxy, an acceptance of Aristotle as a greater thinker than Plato.

The recognition that Aristotle and Plato disagreed about the notion of universals, and that this was a vital question to resolve.

Giving prominence to dialectical thinking and syllogistic reasoning.

An acceptance of the distinction between "natural" and "revealed" theology.

A tendency to dispute everything at great length and in minute detail, often involving word-play.

The Scholastic method is to thoroughly and critically read a book by a renowned scholar or author (e.g. The Bible, texts of Plato or St. Augustine, etc), reference any other related documents and commentaries on it, and note down any disagreements and points of contention. The two sides of an argument would be made whole (found to be in agreement and not contradictory) through philological analysis (the examination of words for multiple meanings or ambiguities), and through logical analysis (using the rules of formal logic to show that contradictions did not exist but were merely subjective to the reader).

These would then be combined into "questionae" (referencing any number of sources to divine the pros and cons of a particular general question), and then into "summae" (complete summaries of all questions, such as St. Thomas Aquinas' famous "Summa Theologica", which claimed to represent the sum total of Christian theology at the time).

Scholastic schools had two methods of teaching: the "lectio" (the simple reading of a text by a teacher, who would expound on certain words and ideas, but no questions were permitted); and the "disputatio" (where either the question to be disputed was announced beforehand, or students proposed a question to the teacher without prior preparation, and the teacher would respond, citing authoritative texts such as the Bible to prove his position, and the students would rebut the response, and the argument would go back and forth, with someone taking notes to summarize the argument).

Scholasticism was concurrent with movements in early Islamic philosophy, some of which presaged and influenced European Scholasticism. From the 8th Century, the Mutazilite School of Islam pursued a rational theology known as Kalam to defend their principles against the more orthodox Ash'ari School, and can be seen as an early form of Scholasticism. Later, the Islamic philosophical schools of Avicennism and Averroism exerted great influence on Scholasticism. There were also similar developments in medieval Jewish philosophy (especially the work of Maimonides).

St. Anselm of Canterbury is sometimes misleadingly referred to as the "Father of Scholasticism", although his approach was not really in keeping with the Scholastic method. Probably a better example of Early Scholasticism is the work of Peter Abelard and Peter Lombard (c. 1100 - 1160), particularly the latter's "Sentences", a collection of opinions on the Church Fathers and other authorities. Other early Scholastics include Hugh of St. Victor (1078 - 1151), Bernard of Clairvaux (1090 - 1153), Hildegard of Bingen (1098 - 1179), Alain de Lille (c. 1128 - 1202) and Joachim of Fiore (c. 1135 - 1202).

The Franciscan and Dominican orders of the 13th Century saw some of the most intense scholastic theologizing of High Scholasticism, producing such theologians and philosophers as Albertus Magnus, St. Thomas Aquinas, Alexander of Hales (died 1245) and St. Bonaventure (1221 - 1274). This period also saw a flourishing of mystical theology, such as Mechthild of Magdeburg (1210 - 1285) and Angela of Foligno (1248 - 1309), and early natural philosophy (or "science") at the hands of such men as Roger Bacon and Robert Grosseteste (c. 1175 - 1253).

Late Scholasticism (14th Century onwards) became more complex and subtle in its distinctions and arguments, including the nominalist or voluntarist theologies of men like William of Ockham. Also notable during the Late Scholasticism period are John Duns Scotus, Meister Eckhart (1260 - 1328), Marsilius of Padua (1270 - 1342), John Wycliffe (c. 1320 - 1384), Julian of Norwich (1342 - 1413), Geert Groote (1340 - 1384), Catherine of Siena (1347 - 1380), Jean Gerson (1363 - 1429), Jan Hus (c. 1369 - 1415) and Thomas a Kempis (1380 - 1471).

Thomism and Scotism are specific off-shoots of Scholasticism, following the philosophies of St. Thomas Aquinas and John Duns Scotus respecitively.

Scholasticism was eclipsed by the Humanism of the 15th and 16th Centuries, and it came to be viewed as a rigid, formalistic and outdated way of conducting philosophy. It was briefly revived in the Spanish School of Salamanca in the 16th Century, and in the Catholic Scholastic revival (Neo-Scholasticism) of the late 19th and early 20th Century, although with a somewhat narrower focus on certain scholastics and their respective schools of thought, most notably St. Thomas Aquinas.


Anahtar Kelimeler
Scholasticism, skolastik, Thomism, Scotism, Patristik, aristo, Augustinus, platon, metafizik, teoloji, hristiyanlık, islamiyet
İlgili Diğer Konular

Fideism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) A view that is pessimistic about the role of reason in achieving knowledge of things divine, and that emphasizes instead the merit of acts of faith.

Medieval Philosophy (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) The Medieval period of philosophy represents a renewed flowering of Western philosophical thought after the intellectual drought of the Dark Ages.

Thomism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Thomism is a Medieval school of philosophy that arose specifically as a legacy of the work and thought of the 13th Century philosopher and theologian St. Thomas Aquinas.

Scotism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Scotism is a Medieval school of philosophy named after 13th Century philosopher and Franciscan theologian John Duns Scotus.

Classical Philosophy (Ancient Greek) (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Sokrates, Platon, Aristoteles’in düşüncelerinin hâkim olduğu dönemdir.

Christian Philosophy (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Hristiyan inancını Yunan felsefesini kullanarak doğrulama çabasıdır.

Aristotelianism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) A tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.

Aristo - Atinalıların Devleti (Articles) Aristonun devlet yönetimleri üzerine yazdığı kitaplar serisinin en önemlisi bu kitaptır.

Logic (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Bilginin yapısını inceleyen, doğru ile yanlış arasındaki akıl yürütmenin ayrımını yapan disiplindir.

Diyalektik (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Kavramlar arasındaki karşıtlık ilişkisinden yola çıkarak bunu doğruya varan süreçlerin açığa çıkarılmasında bir ilke olarak kullanan düşünme ve araştırma yolu.

Aion (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) İlkçağ Yunan felsefesinde özellikle Parmenides’ten itibaren ebediyet ya da bengilik anlamında kullanılan terim.

Peripatetics (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Aristoteles'in yandaş ve öğrencileri.

Determinism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) The philosophical position that for every event there exist conditions that could cause no other event.

90 Dakikada Sokrates - Paul Strathern (Articles) Sokrates'in Hayatı ve Öğretileri

Socratic Era (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) (5th - 4th Century B.C.)

Averroism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 13. yüzyılda latin hristiyan skolastisizmini etkileyen, İbn Rüşd çevirilerinin etrafında şekillenerek etkisini gösteren Aristotelesçi felsefi akım, görüş.

Logicism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Logicism is one of the schools of thought in the philosophy of mathematics, putting forth the theory that mathematics is an extension of logic and therefore some or all mathematics is reducible to logic. 

Ontology (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Ontology as a dogmatic science of beings is destroyed by the whole work of Kant; Against the psychology, cosmology and theology, as far as they claim to be dogmatic, the transcendental dialectic is directed.

Historical Ethics of Moral Philosophy (Articles) Which actions and behaviors are right or wrong? What are the criteria for being moral or immoral? Some well-known philosophers from ancient Antiquity have responded to these questions on a daily basis.

Hegel (Biyografi) The German philosopher Hegel believed that strange and alien bits of history have much to teach us. He believed story and civilisation do not move in a straight line, so important ideas and attitudes get left behind.

Mimesis (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) A critical and philosophical term that carries a wide range of meanings, which include imitation, representation, mimicry, imitatio, receptivity, nonsensuous similarity, the act of resembling, the act of expression, and the presentation of the self.

Subjectivism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) The doctrine that "our own mental activity is the only unquestionable fact of our experience".,instead of shared or communal, and that there is no external or objective truth.

Janseniusçuluk (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Descartes usçuluğuyla Augustinus tanrıcılığını uzlaştırmaya çalışan Piskopos Jansenius’un öğretisi.

Eleatic School (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) The Eleatics were a pre-Socratic school of philosophy founded by Parmenides in the early fifth century BC in the ancient town of Elea.

Platonic Academy (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Platon'un kurduğu felsefe okulunun adıdır.

Platon (Biyografi) Platon nun temel görüşleri üzerine kısa animasyon

Idea (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) A notion stretching all the way from one pole, where it denotes a subjective, internal presence in the mind, somehow thought of as representing something about the world, to the other pole, where it represents an eternal, timeless unchanging form or concept.

Platonism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Generally, any view supposed to owe its classical origin to the dialogues of Plato.

Yeni Platonculuk (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Platon'dan başka Aristoteles'e stoalılara, Pitagorasçılara da dayanan ayrıca doğu dinlerinden ve Hıristiyanlıktan da etkilenmiş olan, bütün bunları kendi içinde karıştırıp eriten felsefe okulu.

Demiourgos (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Düzenleyici Tanrı.

Monad (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Yaratma teorileri içindeki ilk varlığa, tanrısallığa veya bütün varlıkların toplamına atıfta bulunur.

Realizm (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Bilinçten bağımsız bir gerçekliğin var olduğunu kabul eden öğreti. Varlığın, insan bilincinden bağımsız ve nesnel olarak var olduğunu ileri süren görüş.

Philosophy of mathematics (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) The branch of philosophy that studies the assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics, and to provide a viewpoint of the nature and methodology of mathematics and to understand the place of mathematics in people's lives.

Sophism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) In ancient Greece, sophists were a category of teachers who specialized in using the techniques of philosophy and rhetoric for the purpose of teaching arete—"excellence" or "virtue"—predominantly to young statesmen and nobility.

Phenomenology (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Olayların ideal varlığını inceleme ve betimleme yöntemi.

Panentheism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) The belief that the divine pervades and interpenetrates every part of the universe and also extends beyond time and space.

Metaphysics (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Metafizik, felsefenin bir dalıdır. İlk felsefeciler tarafından, "fizik bilimlerinin ötesinde kalan" anlamına gelen "metafizik" sözcüğü ile felsefeye kazandırılmıştır.

Stoicism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) It is a discipline of philosophy founded by Zenon of Cyprus. Logic, Metaphysics, Ethics.

Nominalism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Genel kavramları gerçek saymayıp birer addan ibaret bulan öğreti.

Naturalism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) The "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world.

Reductionism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) The belief that reality is composed of a minimum number of kinds of entities or substances.

Pluralism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) A term used in philosophy, meaning "doctrine of multiplicity", often used in opposition to monism ("doctrine of unity") and dualism ("doctrine of duality").

Political philosophy (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) The study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.

Voluntarism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) A proponent of metaphysical voluntarism is 19th-century German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer. In his view, the will is not reasoning, but an irrational, unconscious urge, in relation to which the intellect represents a secondary phenomenon. The will is actually the force at the core of all reality.

Doctrines in Philosophy (Articles) A general picture of the philosophical categorized doctrines.

Islamic Philosophy (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Hristiyan skolastiğine paralel olarak Müslüman inançlarını antik Yunan felsefe ekolleri ile açıklama ve doğrulama çabasıdır.

Monoteism (Encyclopedia of Philosophy) The belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and interferes in the world.

Islamiyet ve Kur an (Dinler)

İlgili Kişiler

Abelard, Peter (Philosophers) A medieval French scholastic philosopher, theologian and preeminent logician.

Thomas Aquinas (Philosophers) He was an immensely influential philosopher, theologian, and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism, within which he is also known as the Doctor Angelicus and the Doctor Communis.

Leibniz (Philosophers) A German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy, having developed differential and integral calculus independently of Isaac Newton.

Al-Farabi (Philosophers) In Arabic philosophical tradition, he is known with the honorific "the Second Master", after Aristotle.

İbni Rüşd (Philosophers) Batıya Aristo’yu tanıtan ve felsefenin yayılmasında öncülük eden önemli bir İslam filozofudur.

Avempace (Philosophers) A medieval Andalusian: his writings include works regarding astronomy, physics, and music, as well as philosophy, medicine, botany, and poetry.

Aristotle (Philosophers) Antik Yunan filozof.

Platon / Eflatun (Philosophers) Görüşleri Islam ve Hristiyan felsefesine derin etkide bulunmuş önemli bir Antik Yunan filozofudur.

Sokrates (Philosophers) Yunan Felsefesinin kurucularındandır

Montesquieu (Philosophers) A French lawyer, man of letters, and political philosopher who lived during the Age of Enlightenment.

Spinoza (Philosophers) 17. yüzyıl felsefesinin önde gelen rasyonalistlerinden biri olarak kabul edilmektedir.

Epikür (Philosophers) It is one of the most important thinkers of Hellenistic philosophy.

Ibn-i Sina (Philosophers) Fars filozof ve hekim.

Machiavelli (Philosophers) Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (1469 - 1527). Florentine philosopher, statesman, military strategist, poet, play writer, founder of history and politics.

Hegel (Philosophers) Diyalektik mantık ekolünün kurucusu Alman filozof.

Francis Bacon (Philosophers) Ingiliz devlet adamı ve filozof.

Locke, John (Philosophers) Aydınlanma düşünürlerinden en çok etkilenen ve yaygın olarak "Liberalizmin Babası" olarak bilinen İngiliz felsefeci ve doktoru.

Heidegger, Martin (Philosophers) A German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics.

Augustine of Hippo (Philosophers) An early Christian theologian and philosopher [5] whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.

Berkeley, George (Philosophers) An Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism".

Bergson, Henri (Philosophers) A French philosopher, influential especially in the first half of the 20th century and after WWII in continental philosophy.

Parmenides (Philosophers) Doğa filozoflarından sayılmakla birlikte, Antik Yunan felsefesinde rasyonalizm geleneğinin ilk filozoflarından biridir.

Thales, Miletli (Philosophers) It is considered to be the philosopher who started philosophy.

Schopenhauer, Arthur (Philosophers) Schopenhauer developed an atheistic metaphysical and ethical system that has been described as an exemplary manifestation of philosophical pessimism, rejecting the contemporaneous post-Kantian philosophies of German idealism.

Jean Bodin (Philosophers) Fransız hukukçu ve siyaset felsefecisi.

Hypatia of Alexandria (Philosophers) A Greek mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher in Egypt, then a part of the Eastern Roman Empire.

Erasmus (Philosophers) An important master of the Northern European Renaissance and a classical literary scholar, humanist scholar and theologian.

Feuerbach, Ludwig (Philosophers) German philosopher and anthropologist.

İlgili Özlüsözler

Metaphysics (Aphorisms) Algılarımızı (idrakimizi) ve duyularımızı aşan konular

Atheism (Aphorisms) Tanrının olmadığını savunan ve dinleri reddeden görüş.

Faith (Aphorisms) A trust or confidence in the intentions or abilities of a person, object, or ideal.

Philosophy (Aphorisms) Varlık, anlam gibi sorunların araştırılmasına yönelik düşünsel etkinlikler.

Religion (Aphorisms) Tanrı'ya, doğaüstü güçlere, çeşitli kutsal varlıklara inanmayı ve tapınmayı sistemleştiren toplumsal bir kurum, diyanet

Evrim Teorisi (Aphorisms)

Christianity (Aphorisms) Ortadoğuda ortaya çıkan 3 büyük tek tanrılı dinin ikincisi.